The history of the penny of Great Britain and the United Kingdom from
1714 to 1901, the period in which the House of Hanover reigned, saw its
transformation from a small silver coin to a larger bronze piece. All
bear the portrait of the monarch on the obverse; copper and bronze
pennies have a depiction of Britannia on the reverse. During most of the
18th century, the penny was a small silver coin rarely seen in
circulation. Beginning in 1787, the chronic shortage of good money
resulted in the wide circulation of private tokens, including ones
valued at one penny. In 1797 Matthew Boulton gained a government
contract and struck millions of pennies. The copper penny continued to
be issued until 1860, when they were replaced by lighter bronze coins;
the "Bun penny", named for the hairstyle of Queen Victoria on it, was
issued from then until 1894. The final years of her reign saw the "Old
head" pennies, coined from 1895 until her death in 1901.
Today's selected anniversaries:
The peerage and clergy of the Kingdom of England published the
Ordinances of 1311 to restrict King Edward II's powers.
Bashir Shihab II surrendered to the Ottoman Empire and was
removed as Emir of Mount Lebanon after an imperial decree by Sultan
A field-sequential color system developed by Hungarian-American
engineer Peter Goldmark became the first color television system to be
adopted for commercial use, only for it to be abandoned a year later.
Sri Lankan Civil War: The Indian Peace Keeping Force began
Operation Pawan to take control of Jaffna from the Tamil Tigers and
enforce their disarmament as a part of the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord.
Wiktionary's word of the day:
1. Of chief or leading importance; prime, principal.
2. Chief, most important, or principal in extent, size, or strength;
consisting of the largest part.
3. Of force, strength, etc.: full, sheer, undivided.
4. (dialectal) Big; angry.
5. (nautical) Belonging to or connected with the principal mast in a
6. (obsolete) Great in size or degree; important, powerful, strong,
Wikiquote quote of the day:
I have been one of those who have carried the fight for complete
freedom of information in the United Nations. And while accepting the
fact that some of our press, our radio commentators, our prominent
citizens and our movies may at times be blamed legitimately for things
they have said and done, still I feel that the fundamental right of
freedom of thought and expression is essential. If you curtail what the
other fellow says and does, you curtail what you yourself may say and
do. In our country we must trust the people to hear and see both the
good and the bad and to choose the good.