Ivan Alexander ruled as Emperor (Tsar) of Bulgaria from 1331 to 1371,
during the Second Bulgarian Empire. The date of his birth is unknown.
He died on February 17, 1371. The long reign of Ivan Alexander is
considered a transitional period in Bulgarian medieval history. Ivan
Alexander began his rule by dealing with internal problems and
external threats from Bulgaria's neighbours, the Byzantine Empire and
Serbia, as well as leading his empire into a period of economic
recovery and cultural and religious renaissance. However, the emperor
was later unable to cope with the mounting incursions of Ottoman
forces, Hungarian invasions from the northwest and the Black Death. In
an ill-fated attempt to combat these problems, he divided the country
between his two sons, thus forcing it to face the imminent Ottoman
conquest weakened and divided.
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Today's selected anniversaries:
U.S. Secretary of State William H. Seward negotiated the purchase of
Alaska for US$7.2 million from Russia.
Sultan Abdelhafid signed the Treaty of Fez, making Morocco a French
World War II: Wang Jingwei was installed by Japan as head of the
puppet government in China.
The Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, an international treaty aimed
against the illicit manufacture and trafficking of narcotic drugs, was
John Hinckley, Jr. shot and wounded U.S. President Ronald Reagan and
three others outside the Washington Hilton Hotel in Washington, D.C.
Wikiquote of the day:
Accept the truth from whatever source it comes. -- Maimonides