The Stockton and Darlington Railway operated in north-east England from
1825 to 1863. The world's first public railway to use steam locomotives,
its first line connected coal mines near Shildon with Stockton-on-Tees
and Darlington, and was officially opened on 27 September 1825. The
movement of coal to ships became a lucrative business, and the line was
soon extended to a new port and town at Middlesbrough. Passengers were
carried in coaches drawn by horses until carriages hauled by steam
locomotives were introduced in 1833. The company suffered severe
financial difficulties at the end of the 1840s and was nearly taken over
by the York, Newcastle and Berwick Railway, before profiting from the
discovery of iron ore in Cleveland. The company was taken over by the
North Eastern Railway in 1863, transferring 200 route miles (320 km) of
line and about 160 locomotives, but continued to operate independently
as the Darlington Section until 1876. Much of the original route is now
served by the Tees Valley Line, operated by Northern Rail. The railway's
opening in 1825 was seen as proof of the effectiveness of steam
railways, and its anniversary was celebrated in 1875, 1925 and 1975.
Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stockton_and_Darlington_Railway>
Today's selected anniversaries:
The Treaty of Melno was signed, establishing the
Prussian–Lithuanian border, which afterwards remained unchanged for
about 500 years.
In a letter to the Paris Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-
Lettres, Jean-François Champollion announced his initial successes in
deciphering the Rosetta Stone.
The Ellen Southard wrecked in a storm at Liverpool, England;
the United States Congress subsequently awarded 27 gold Lifesaving
Medals to the lifeboat men who rescued her crew.
The first production of the Ford Model T automobile was built
at the Piquette Plant in Detroit, Michigan, US.
Software developer Richard Stallman announced plans for the
Unix-like GNU operating system, the first free software developed by the
Wiktionary's word of the day:
1. A set of steps surmounting a fence or wall, or a narrow gate or
contrived passage through a fence or wall, which in either case allows
people but not livestock to pass.
2. A vertical component of a panel or frame, such as that of a door or
Wikiquote quote of the day:
If ye love wealth better than liberty, the tranquility of
servitude than the animated contest of freedom — go home from us in
peace. We ask not your counsels or arms. Crouch down and lick the hands
which feed you. May your chains sit lightly upon you, and may posterity
forget that you were our countrymen!
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