Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is the diagnostic term for severe
and relatively uncommon disorders of attachment that can affect
children. RAD is characterized by markedly disturbed and
developmentally inappropriate ways of relating socially in most
contexts. It can take the form of a persistent failure to initiate or
respond to most social interactions in a developmentally appropriate
way—known as the "inhibited" form—or can present itself as
indiscriminate sociability, such as excessive familiarity with
relative strangers—known as the "disinhibited form". RAD arises from
a failure to form normal attachments to primary caregivers in early
childhood. Such a failure could result from severe early experiences
of neglect, abuse, abrupt separation from caregivers between the ages
of six months and three years, frequent change of caregivers, or a
lack of caregiver responsiveness to a child's communicative efforts.
The criteria for a diagnosis of a reactive attachment disorder are
very different from the criteria used in assessment or categorization
of attachment styles such as insecure or disorganized attachment.
Children with RAD are presumed to have grossly disturbed internal
working models of relationships which may lead to interpersonal and
behavioral difficulties in later life. There are few studies of long
term effects, and there is a lack of clarity about the presentation of
the disorder beyond the age of five years.
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Today's selected anniversaries:
Oliver Cromwell dissolved the Rump Parliament of the Commonwealth of
England by force, eventually replacing it with the Barebone's
French physiologist Louis Pasteur and physiologist Claude Bernard
completed the first test on pasteurization.
Pope Leo XIII published the encyclical Humanum Genus, denouncing
Freemasonry, the doctrine of a separation of church and state, and
many other principles, some of which are today equated by most people
with the founding ones of the United States.
British Member of Parliament Enoch Powell made his controversial
"Rivers of Blood" speech in opposition to immigration and
anti-discrimination legislation, resulting in him being removed from
the Shadow Cabinet.
Soviet fighters shot down Korean Air Lines Flight 902 after it
violated Soviet airspace and failed to respond to Soviet interceptors.
Wiktionary's Word of the day:
quidnunc: Someone who attempts to know all that happens, but who is
not careful of the facts.
Wikiquote of the day:
The true secret in being a hero lies in knowing the order of things.
... Things must happen when it is time for them to happen. Quests may
not simply be abandoned; prophecies may not be left to rot like
unpicked fruit; unicorns may go unrescued for a very long time, but
not forever. The happy ending cannot come in the middle of the story.
-- Peter S. Beagle