Jackie Robinson (1919–1972) was the first African-American Major League
Baseball (MLB) player of the modern era. Robinson broke the baseball
color line when he debuted with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947. As the
first black man to openly play in the major leagues since the 1880s, he
was instrumental in bringing an end to racial segregation in
professional baseball, which had relegated African-Americans to the
Negro leagues for six decades. The example of his character and
unquestionable talent challenged the traditional basis of segregation,
which then marked many other aspects of American life, and contributed
significantly to the Civil Rights Movement. Apart from his cultural
impact, Robinson had an exceptional baseball career. Over ten seasons,
he played in six World Series and contributed to the Dodgers' 1955
World Championship. He was selected for six consecutive All-Star Games
from 1949 to 1954, was the recipient of the inaugural MLB Rookie of the
Year Award in 1947, and won the National League Most Valuable Player
Award in 1949 – the first black player so honored. Robinson was
inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1962. In 1997, Major League
Baseball retired his uniform number, 42, across all major league teams.
In recognition of his achievements on and off the field, Robinson was
posthumously awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the
Congressional Gold Medal.
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Today's selected anniversaries:
According to both modern and medieval Muslim historians, Qutuz, Mamluk
sultan of Egypt, was assassinated by a fellow Mamluk leader, Baibars,
who then seized power for himself.
The second treaty of the Peace of Westphalia, the Treaty of Münster,
was signed, ending both the Thirty Years' War and the Dutch Revolt, and
officially recognizing the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands and
Swiss Confederation as independent states.
Sheffield F.C., one of the world's oldest documented non-university
football clubs, was founded.
First Balkan War: Serbian forces defeated the Ottoman army at the
Battle of Kumanovo in Vardar Macedonia.
The George Washington Bridge, today considered one of the world's
busiest bridges in terms of vehicle traffic, connecting New York City
to Fort Lee, New Jersey, was dedicated.
Wiktionary's word of the day:
1. (of sound) Rough, raw, especially used to describe vocal quality.
Wikiquote quote of the day:
We present a dramatically different approach to time management. This
is a principle-centered approach. It transcends the traditional
prescriptions of faster, harder, smarter, and more. Rather than
offering you another clock, this approach provides you with a compass —
because more important than how fast you're going, is where you're
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