The Italian War of 1542–1546 was a conflict late in the Italian Wars,
pitting Francis I of France and Suleiman I of the Ottoman Empire
against the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Henry VIII of England. The
course of the war saw extensive fighting in Italy, France, and the Low
Countries, as well as attempted invasions of Spain and England; but,
although the conflict was ruinously expensive for the major
participants, its outcome was inconclusive. The war arose from the
failure of the Truce of Nice, which ended the Italian War of 1536–38,
to resolve the long-standing conflict between Charles and
Francis—particularly their conflicting claims to the Duchy of Milan.
Having found a suitable pretext, Francis once again declared war
against his perpetual enemy in 1542. Fighting began at once throughout
the Low Countries; the following year saw the Franco-Ottoman alliance's
attack on Nice, as well as a series of maneuvers in northern Italy
which culminated in the bloody Battle of Ceresole. Charles and Henry
then proceeded to invade France, but the long sieges of
Boulogne-sur-Mer and Saint-Dizier prevented a decisive offensive
against the French. Charles came to terms with Francis by the Treaty of
Crépy in late 1544, but the death of Francis's younger son, the Duke of
Orléans—whose proposed marriage to a relative of the Emperor was the
cornerstone of the treaty—made it moot less than a year afterwards.
Henry, left alone but unwilling to return Boulogne to the French,
continued to fight until 1546, when the Treaty of Ardres finally
restored peace between France and England.
Read the rest of this article:
Today's selected anniversaries:
Muhammad and his followers completed their Hijra from Mecca to Medina
to escape religious persecution.
The Byzantine Empire is weakened by the death of Emperor Manuel I
The First United States Congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1789,
establishing the U.S. federal judiciary and setting the number of
Supreme Court Justices.
The Sultan of Brunei granted Sarawak to British adventurer James
The Imperial Japanese Army commanded by Kawamura Sumiyoshi defeated
Saigō Takamori and the Satsuma clan samurai at the Battle of Shiroyama
in Kagoshima, the decisive engagement of the Satsuma Rebellion.
Alfred Deakin became the second Prime Minister of Australia, succeeding
Edmund Barton who left office to become a founding justice of the High
Court of Australia.
Wiktionary's word of the day:
(microbiology) Possessing an enclosing shell or test
Wikiquote quote of the day:
At any rate, let us love for a while, for a year or so, you and me.
That's a form of divine drunkenness that we can all try. There are only
diamonds in the whole world, diamonds and perhaps the shabby gift of
--F. Scott Fitzgerald
Show replies by date