Afonso (1845–1847) was the Prince Imperial and heir apparent to the
throne of the Empire of Brazil. Born in Rio de Janeiro, he was the
eldest child of Emperor Dom Pedro II and Dona Teresa Cristina of the
Two Sicilies, and thus a member of the Brazilian branch of the House of
Braganza. With the birth of his child, the insecure and shy 19-year-old
Emperor Pedro II became more mature and outgoing. Afonso's arrival also
fostered a closer and happier relationship between his parents, who had
not married for love. Afonso died from epilepsy at the age of two,
devastating the emperor. After the loss of his other son, doubts grew in
Pedro II's mind that the imperial system could be viable. He still had
an heir in his daughter Isabel, but he was unconvinced that a female
would prove to be a suitable successor. He became careless about the
effects of his policies on the monarchy, provided his daughter Isabel
with no training for her role as potential empress, and failed to
cultivate her acceptance within the country's political class.
Pedro II's lack of interest in protecting the imperial system
ultimately led to its downfall.
Read more: <https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afonso,_Prince_Imperial_of_Brazil>
Today's selected anniversaries:
The identity of English highwayman Dick Turpin, who had been
living under an alias in York, was uncovered by his former
schoolteacher, who recognised his handwriting, leading to Turpin's
Sino-French War: France gained an important victory in the
Battle of Đồng Đăng in the Tonkin region of what is now Vietnam.
The Silver Dart was flown off the ice of Bras d'Or Lake on Cape
Breton Island, making it the first controlled powered flight in Canada
and the British Empire.
American photographer Joe Rosenthal took the Pulitzer Prize-
winning photograph Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima during the Battle of Iwo
Jima, an image that was later reproduced as the U.S. Marine Corps War
The controversial French law on colonialism, requiring lycée
teachers to teach their students "the positive role" of French
colonialism, was passed, creating so much public uproar and opposition
that it was repealed less than one year later.
Wiktionary's word of the day:
The piecemeal removal or scaling back of something (especially political
opposition); a gradual attack on an opposing position, group, etc.
Wikiquote quote of the day:
At some time, here or hereafter, every account must be settled,
and every debt paid in full.
--John Heyl Vincent
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