Shoe polish is a consumer product chiefly used to shine, waterproof,
and restore the appearance of leather shoes, thereby extending the
garment's life. It is usually a waxy paste or a cream. Various
substances have been used as shoe polish for many hundreds of years,
starting with natural substances such as wax and tallow. The first
modern shoe polish, Kiwi, was invented in 1906 and is still the most
widely used today. Since World War II, shoe polish usage has increased
significantly. Today, shoe polish is usually made from a mix of
natural and synthetic materials, including naphtha, turpentine, dyes,
and gum arabic, using fairly straightforward chemical engineering
processes. If misused, shoe polish can be toxic.
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Today's selected anniversaries:
Forces led by Belisarius defeated Gelimer and the Vandals at the
Battle of Ticameron, completing the "Reconquest of North Africa" under
Byzantine Emperor Justinian I.
The Hashshashin stronghold at Alamut in present-day Iran was captured
and destroyed by Hulagu Khan and the Mongols.
The first ten amendments to the United States Constitution,
collectively known as the United States Bill of Rights, were ratified.
James Naismith invented basketball.
World War I: The Battle of Å?Ã³dÅº between Russia and Germany ended.
Netscape Navigator 1.0 was first released.
Wikiquote of the day:
"Trouble arises when either science or religion claims universal
jurisdiction, when either religious dogma or scientific dogma claims
to be infallible. Religious creationists and scientific materialists
are equally dogmatic and insensitive. By their arrogance they bring
both science and religion into disrepute." -- Freeman Dyson