The Anglo-Scottish War was the final conflict in the British Wars of the
Three Kingdoms. When the Royalists were defeated in 1648, after the
First and Second English Civil Wars, the English government ordered the
execution of their king, Charles I, who was also, separately, the king
of Scotland, then an independent nation. The Parliament of Scotland
declared his son, Charles II (depicted), to be King of Britain. Seeing
this as a threat, an English army under Oliver Cromwell invaded Scotland
on 22 July 1650. After a month of manoeuvring Cromwell heavily defeated
the Scots at Dunbar. In July 1651 the English crossed the Firth of
Forth and defeated the Scots at Inverkeithing, cutting their army off
from supply and reinforcements. In desperation Charles II invaded
England in August. Cromwell pursued, brought the badly outnumbered Scots
to battle on 3 September 1651 and completely defeated them, ending the
Wars of the Three Kingdoms and resulting in Scotland's absorption into
the English Commonwealth.
Today's selected anniversaries:
A crusader army captured Béziers, France, and massacred the
city's inhabitants in the first major military action of the Albigensian
Williamite forces defeated the Jacobites at the Battle of
Aughrim, the decisive battle of the Williamite War in Ireland.
Gia Long conquered Hanoi and unified modern-day Vietnam, which
had experienced centuries of feudal warfare.
Written and illustrated by Eiichiro Oda, One Piece, the best-
selling manga series in history, debuted in Weekly Shōnen Jump.
Wiktionary's word of the day:
1. More than one or two but not very many; a number of, several.
2. Of various types, especially when numerous; diverse, varied.
3. Consisting of an assortment of different kinds; miscellaneous.
4. (archaic) Chiefly preceded by a number or an adjective like many: of
two or more similar people or things: not the same as other persons or
things of the same nature; different, distinct, separate. (Contrast
6. Relating to a single person or thing as opposed to more than one;
7. Of a person or thing: not the same as something else; different.
(Contrast sense 4.)
8. (except Scotland) Not attached or connected to anything else;
physically separate. [...]
Wikiquote quote of the day:
Since the beginning of the war, Russia has launched more than
3,000 different cruise missiles over Ukraine, but to destroy someone's
family, you don't even need a missile, a small fragment is enough. … I
appeal to you on behalf of all the dead. On behalf of people who have
lost arms and legs. And on behalf of people who are still alive and
well. On behalf of those who are fighting and those who are waiting in
the rear for the return of their relatives from the front. I'm asking
for something now that I never wanted to ask for. I am asking you for
weapons! Weapons not for waging war on someone else's land, but to
protect our home and the right to wake up in it alive. I am asking you
for anti-aircraft defense — so that rockets do not kill children in
their strollers. So that they do not destroy children's rooms and entire
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