Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky's relations with the Belyayev circle, which
lasted from 1887 until Tchaikovsky's death, influenced all of their
music and briefly helped shape the next generation of Russian composers.
This group was named after timber merchant Mitrofan Belyayev, an
influential music patron and publisher. By 1887, Tchaikovsky was firmly
established as one of the leading composers in Russia. A favorite of
Tsar Alexander III, he was widely regarded as a national treasure. As a
result of the time Tchaikovsky spent with the Belyayev circle's leading
composers—Alexander Glazunov, Anatoly Lyadov and Nikolai Rimsky-
Korsakov—the somewhat fraught relationship he had previously endured
with The Five would eventually meld into something more harmonious. Over
the long term, though, Tchaikovsky's influence over the Belyayev
composers was not as great as his influence on The Five. They continued
writing overall in a style more akin to Rimsky-Korsakov than to
Tchaikovsky, falling back stylistically on their predecessors instead of
developing their own individual voices. Even Glazunov backed away from
echoing Tchaikovsky strongly in his mature work, instead amalgamating
nationalistic and cosmopolitan styles in an eclectic approach. The
Belyayev composers also spread the nationalist musical aesthetic to
Russia on the whole and were themselves an influence on composers well
into the Soviet era.
Today's selected anniversaries:
American Revolutionary War: South Carolina militia repelled a
British attack on Charleston.
The United States Court of Private Land Claims ruled that the
title claimed by James Reavis to 18,600 sq mi (48,000 km2) in present-
day Arizona and New Mexico was "wholly fictitious and fraudulent".
World War II: The German Wehrmacht launched Case Blue, a
strategic summer offensive intended to knock the Soviet Union out of the
Workers demanding better conditions held massive protests in
Poznań, Poland, but were violently repressed by the following day by
400 tanks and 10,000 soldiers of the People's Army of Poland and the
Internal Security Corps.
President of Serbia Slobodan Milošević gave a speech in which
he described the possibility of "armed battles" in the future of
Serbia's national development.
Honduran president Manuel Zelaya was ousted by local military
forces following his attempt to hold a referendum to change the Honduran
constitution so he could serve a second term.
Wiktionary's word of the day:
(informal, humorous) Heavy metal umlauts; umlauts over letters in the
name of a heavy metal band (as in "Motörhead", "Queensrÿche" and
"Mötley Crüe"), added gratuitously for mere stylistic effect.
Wikiquote quote of the day:
Nature never deceives us; it is we who deceive ourselves.
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