35 mm film is the basic film gauge most commonly used for both still
photography and motion pictures, and remains relatively unchanged
since its introduction in 1892 by William Dickson and Thomas Edison,
using film stock supplied by George Eastman. The photographic film is
cut into strips 1 3/8 inches or 35 mm wide — hence the name. The
standard negative pulldown is four perforations per frame along both
edges, which makes for exactly 16 frames per foot. A wide variety of
largely proprietary gauges were used by the numerous different camera
and projection systems independently invented around the late 19th
century and early 20th century, ranging from 13 mm to 75 mm. 35 mm was
eventually recognized as the international standard gauge in 1909, and
has by far remained the dominant film gauge for both image origination
and projection. Despite threats both from smaller and larger gauges,
and novel formats, its longevity is largely because its size allows
for a relatively good tradeoff between the cost of the film stock and
the quality of the images captured. Since the beginning of the 21st
century, the manufacturing of 35 mm motion picture film has been a
duopoly between Eastman Kodak and Fujifilm.
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Today's selected anniversaries:
Anne of Denmark was crowned Queen of Scotland in the abbey church at
The New York Stock Exchange was formed.
The International Telecommunication Union, the world's oldest
international organization, was founded as the International Telegraph
Union in Paris.
Second Boer War: The Siege of Mafeking was lifted after 217 days.
World War II: RAF Dam Busters successfully deployed bouncing bombs on
German dams in Operation Chastise.
Wikiquote of the day:
We are all, always, the desire not to die. This desire is as
immeasurable and varied as life's complexity, but at bottom this is
what it is: To continue to be, to be more and more, to develop and to
endure. All the force we have, all our energy and clearness of mind
serve to intensify themselves in one way or another. We intensify
ourselves with new impressions, new sensations, new ideas. We
endeavour to take what we do not have and to add it to ourselves.
Humanity is the desire for novelty founded upon the fear of death.
That is what it is. -- Henri Barbusse