The House of Gediminas were the siblings, children, and grandchildren of
Gediminas, Grand Duke of Lithuania (ca. 1275–1341). The Gediminid dynasty
ruled the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from ca. 1285 or 1316 to 1572, eventually
extending its territories from the Baltic Sea to the Black Sea. Gediminas'
origins are unclear, but recent research suggests that Skalmantas, an
otherwise unknown historical figure, was Gediminas' grandfather or father,
and could be considered the dynasty's founder. Because none of his brothers
or sisters had known heirs, Gediminas, who sired at least twelve children,
had the advantage in establishing sovereignty over his siblings. Known for
his diplomatic skills, Gediminas arranged his children's marriages to suit
the goals of his foreign policy: his sons consolidated Lithuanian power
within the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, while his daughters established or
strengthened alliances with the rulers of areas in modern-day Russia,
Ukraine, and Poland. Gediminas' many grandchildren and their descendants
engaged in power struggles that continued well into the 15th century.
Gediminas' grandchildren converted Lithuania to Christianity and inaugurated
the first personal union with Poland. The dynasty came to an end in 1572,
when Sigismund II Augustus died without producing a male heir.
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Today's selected anniversaries:
As the seven-year old Leo II was deemed too young to rule, his father Zeno
was crowned as the co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire.
After no presidential candidate received a majority of electoral votes, the
United States House of Representatives elected John Quincy Adams President
of the United States.
William G. Morgan, a YMCA physical education director in Holyoke,
Massachusetts, USA, invented a game called Mintonette, which evolved into
The Spitsbergen Treaty was signed, recognizing Norwegian sovereignty over
the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard, but all signatories were also given
equal rights to engage in commercial activities on the islands.
World War II: Allied forces declared Guadalcanal secure, ending the
Guadalcanal Campaign as a significant strategic victory for Allied forces
fighting Japan in the Pacific War.
Wiktionary's word of the day:
1. Any distinctive identifying uniform worn by a group, such as the uniform
worn by chauffeurs and male servants.
2. The paint scheme of a vehicle or fleet of vehicles.
3. (law) The delivery of property from one owner to the next
Wikiquote quote of the day:
You've got to get up every morning with a smile on your face
And show the world all the love in your heart
The people gonna treat you better,
You're gonna find, yes you will,
That you're beautiful as you feel. --Carole King